The following examples are from the directions to authors found in the front of all American Society for Microbiology (ASM) journals:


(i) References cited in text. The References section must include all journal articles (both print and online), books and book chapters (both print and online), patents, theses and dissertations, and published conference proceedings (not abstracts; see below), as well as in-press journal articles, book chapters, and books (publication title must be given). All listed references must be cited in the text. Arrange the citations by the order in which they appear in the article and number consecutively. Abbreviate journal names according to BIOSIS Serial Sources (BIOSIS, Philadelphia, Pa., 2000). Cite each listed reference by number in the text.


Follow the styles shown in the examples below:


  1. Arendsen, A. F., M. Q. Solimar, and S. W. Ragsdale. 1999. Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. J. Bacteriol. 181:1489–1495.
  2. Cox, C. S., B. R. Brown, and J. C. Smith. J. Gen. Genet. in press.* {Article title is optional; journal title is mandatory.}
  3. De Ley, J., M. Gillis, and J. Swings. 1984. Family VI. Acetobacteraceae Gillis and De Ley 1980, 23 VP, p. 267–278. In N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
  4. Dunne, W. M., Jr., F. S. Nolte, and M. L. Wilson. 1997. Cumitech 1B, Blood cultures III. Coordinating ed., J. A. Hindler. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
  5. Fitzgerald, G., and D. Shaw. In A. E. Waters (ed.), Clinical microbiology, in press. EFH Publishing Co., Boston, Mass.* {Chapter title is optional.}
  6. Gershon, A. A., P. LaRussa, and S. P. Steinberg. 1999. Varicella-zoster virus, p. 900–911. In P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
  7. Green, P. N., D. Hood, and C. S. Dow. 1984. Taxonomic status of some methylotrophic bacteria, p. 251–254. In R. L. Crawford and R. S. Hanson (ed.), Microbial growth on C1 compounds. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
  8. Odell, J. C. April 1970. Process for batch culturing. U.S. patent 484,363,770. {Include the name of the patented item/process if possible.}
  9. O’Malley, D. R. 1998. Ph.D. thesis. University of California, Los Angeles. {Title is optional.}
  10. van der Zeiss, L., and V. B. Danziger. 1999. History of clinical microbiology. Clin. Microbiol. 100:123– 234. [Online.] {For online versions of print journals.}
  11. Zellnitz, F., and P. M. Foley. 2 October 1998, posting {or revision} date. History of virology. Am. Virol. J. 1:30–50. [Online.] {For online-only journals; page numbers may not be available.}

* A reference to an in-press ASM publication should state the control number (e.g., AEM 577-01) if it is a journal article or the name of the publication if it is a book.


(ii) Works cited in the text. References to unpublished data, articles submitted for publication, abstracts, personal communications, letters, company publications, patent applications and patents pending, databases, and websites should be made parenthetically in the text as follows:

. . .similar results (R. B. Layton and C. C. Weathers, unpublished data).

. . .system was used (J. L. McInerney, A. F. Holden, and P. N. Brighton, submitted for publication).

. . .in mitochondria (S. De Wit, C. Thioux, and N. Clumeck, Abstr. 34th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. 114, 1994).

. . .for other bacteria (A. X. Jones, personal communication).{*see author’s note below}

. . .discussed previously (L. B. Jensen, A. M. Hammerum, R. L. Poulsen, and H. Westh, Letter, Antimi-crob.Agents Chemother. 43:724–725, 1999).

. . .the manufacturer (Sigma manual, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.).

. . .this process (V. R. Smoll, 20 June 1999, Australian Patent Office). {For non-U.S. patent applications, give the date of publication of the application.}

. . .information found at the XYZ website (http://cbx _iou.pgr).

. . .the ABC program (version 2.2; Department of Microbiology, State University [http://www.stu.micro]).


URLs (Uniform Resource Locators, used for specifying Internet addresses) for companies that produce any of the products mentioned in your study or for products being sold may NOT be included in the article. However, company URLs that permit access to scientific data related to the study or to shareware used in the study are permitted.


*A better way to do personal communications:

Personal communication: Laird C. 1998, Senior Lecturer, Institute of Land and Food Resources, Dookie College, Victoria. 25 August,

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